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What You Should Know About Avian Flu

This fact sheet provides general information about avian influenza (bird flu) and information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1), that has caused infections in birds and in humans. Also see Questions and Answers on the CDC website and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the World Health Organization (WHO) website.

這一事實說明 書提供一般信息禽流感(禽流感)以及有關禽流感的一種類型,被稱為禽流感(H5N1亞型)引起的感染已在鳥類和人類。也看到問題和解答關於疾病預防控制中 心網站和常見問題(FAQs)在世界衛生組織(衛生組織)的網站。

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)

Avian influenza in birds

Avian influenza is an infection caused by avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses. These influenza viruses occur naturally among birds. Wild birds worldwide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. However, avian influenza is very contagious among birds and can make some domesticated birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, very sick and kill them.

禽流感是一種由病毒感染引起的禽 (鳥)流行性感冒(流感)病毒。這些流感病毒在禽鳥中自然產生的。野生鳥類攜帶的病毒在世界範圍內的腸子,但通常不生病他們。不過,禽流感是鳥類中非常傳染性和可以做一些家養鳥類,包括雞,鴨和火雞,病得很重,殺死他們。

Infected birds shed influenza virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with contaminated secretions or excretions or with surfaces that are contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds. Domesticated birds may become infected with avian influenza virus through direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry, or through contact with surfaces (such as dirt or cages) or materials (such as water or feed) that have been contaminated with the virus.

流感病毒感染 的鳥棚在他們的唾液,鼻腔分泌物和糞便。易感鳥類受到感染時,他們已接觸受到污染的分泌 物或排泄物,或表面的分泌物或排泄物污染從受感染的鳥類。家養鳥類可能被感染禽流感病毒 通過直接接觸感染的水禽或其他被感染的家禽,或通過接觸表面(如灰塵或籠子)或材料(如水或飼料)已經被污染了該病毒。

Infection with avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry causes two main forms of disease that are distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The “low pathogenic” form may go undetected and usually causes only mild symptoms (such as ruffled feathers and a drop in egg production). However, the highly pathogenic form spreads more rapidly through flocks of poultry. This form may cause disease that affects multiple internal organs and has a mortality rate that can reach 90-100% often within 48 hours.

感染禽流感病毒在家禽中引起兩種主 要形式的疾病的特點是極端的高,低毒性。 “低致病性”可能不被發現,通常僅 導致輕微症狀(如羽毛凌亂和產蛋量下降)。但是,高致病性病毒傳播更加迅速通過成群的家禽。這種形式可能會導致多種疾病,影響到 內部器官,具有死亡率可達到 90-100%,通常在48小時。

Human infection with avian influenza viruses

There are many different subtypes of type A influenza viruses. These subtypes differ because of changes in certain proteins on the surface of the influenza A virus (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA] proteins). There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes of influenza A viruses. Many different combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible. Each combination represents a different subtype. All known subtypes of influenza A viruses can be found in birds.

有許多不同的亞型 A型流感病毒。這些亞型的不同,因為在某些蛋白質的變化,表面上的流感病毒(血凝素[房屋]和神經氨酸酶[不適用]蛋白)。房委會有16個已知的亞型和9個已 知的北美流感病毒亞型。許多不同組合的HA和NA蛋白是可能的。每個組合都代表一個不同的亞型。所有已知的甲型流感病毒亞型中可以找到鳥類。

Usually, “avian influenza virus” refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections with these viruses can occur in humans. The risk from avian influenza is generally low to most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans. However, confirmed cases of human infection from several subtypes of avian influenza infection have been reported since 1997. Most cases of avian influenza infection in humans have resulted from contact with infected poultry (e.g., domesticated chicken, ducks, and turkeys) or surfaces contaminated with secretion/excretions from infected birds. The spread of avian influenza viruses from one ill person to another has been reported very rarely, and has been limited, inefficient and unsustained.

通常,“禽流感病 毒”是指A型流感病毒主要是在發現鳥類,但這些病毒可感染發生在人類身上。從禽流感的風險是一般人普遍偏低,因為病毒通常不會感染人類。但是,人類感染確診病例從幾個亞型 禽流感病毒自1997年以來已報告。多數情況下在人類感染禽流感已造成接觸受感染家禽(如家養的雞,鴨和火雞)或表面污染的分泌物/排泄物從受感染的鳥類。在傳播禽流感病毒從一個人到另一個 病人有報導很少,並且已經有限,效率低,不能持續。

“Human influenza virus” usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. There are only three known A subtypes of influenza viruses (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) currently circulating among humans. It is likely that some genetic parts of current human influenza A viruses came from birds originally. Influenza A viruses are constantly changing, and they might adapt over time to infect and spread among humans.

During an outbreak of avian influenza among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact with infected birds or surfaces that have been contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds.

Symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical human influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches) to eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases (such as acute respiratory distress), and other severe and life-threatening complications. The symptoms of avian influenza may depend on which virus caused the infection.

Studies done in laboratories suggest that some of the prescription medicines approved in the United States for human influenza viruses should work in treating avian influenza infection in humans. However, influenza viruses can become resistant to these drugs, so these medications may not always work. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of these medicines.

Avian Influenza A (H5N1)

Influenza A (H5N1) virus – also called “H5N1 virus” – is an influenza A virus subtype that occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds, and can be deadly to them. H5N1 virus does not usually infect people, but infections with these viruses have occurred in humans. Most of these cases have resulted from people having direct or close contact with H5N1-infected poultry or H5N1-contaminated surfaces.

Avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreaks

For current information about avian influenza A (H5N1) outbreaks, see the CDC's Outbreaks page.

Human health risks during the H5N1 outbreak

Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed the species barrier to infect humans, H5N1 has caused the largest number of detected cases of severe disease and death in humans. However, it is possible that those cases in the most severely ill people are more likely to be diagnosed and reported, while milder cases go unreported. For the most current information about avian influenza and cumulative case numbers, see the World Health Organization (WHO) avian influenza website.

Of the human cases associated with the ongoing H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and wild birds in Asia and parts of Europe, the Near East and Africa, more than half of those people reported infected with the virus have died. Most cases have occurred in previously healthy children and young adults and have resulted from direct or close contact with H5N1-infected poultry or H5N1-contaminated surfaces. In general, H5N1 remains a very rare disease in people. The H5N1 virus does not infect humans easily, and if a person is infected, it is very difficult for the virus to spread to another person.

While there has been some human-to-human spread of H5N1, it has been limited, inefficient and unsustained. For example, in 2004 in Thailand, probable human-to-human spread in a family resulting from prolonged and very close contact between an ill child and her mother was reported. Most recently, in June 2006, WHO reported evidence of human-to-human spread in Indonesia. In this situation, 8 people in one family were infected. The first family member is thought to have become ill through contact with infected poultry. This person then infected six family members. One of those six people (a child) then infected another family member (his father). No further spread outside of the exposed family was documented or suspected.

Nonetheless, because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that H5N1 virus one day could be able to infect humans and spread easily from one person to another. Because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human population. If H5N1 virus were to gain the capacity to spread easily from person to person, an influenza pandemic (worldwide outbreak of disease) could begin. For more information about influenza pandemics, see PandemicFlu.gov.

No one can predict when a pandemic might occur. However, experts from around the world are watching the H5N1 situation in Asia and Europe very closely and are preparing for the possibility that the virus may begin to spread more easily and widely from person to person.

Treatment and vaccination for H5N1 virus in humans

The H5N1 virus that has caused human illness and death in Asia is resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, two antiviral medications commonly used for influenza. Two other antiviral medications, oseltamavir and zanamavir, would probably work to treat influenza caused by H5N1 virus, but additional studies still need to be done to demonstrate their effectiveness.

For information about H5N1 vaccines, visit http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/qa.htm.

Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus. (SOURCE: Center for Disease Control and Prevention, USA)

 

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